自由決定 2

這段改編自 2010 年 4 月 18 日的對話。

甚至,再有一個可能是,它們極端地兼容 — 其中一方直情建基於,另外一方。

前人提出過,如果沒有「注定」(物理等自然定律),人或其他生命體,就根本不可能有「自由意志」。

例如,你想拿起一隻茶杯。因為你有自由意志,所以可以由腦部下指令,訊號由神經線傳達到手部,拿起茶杯。手部正正是因為是「注定」的,即是受制於自然定律,才保證必會執行,腦部的指令。

試想想,如果手部未必根據自然定律來行事,它就不一定會執行,你心中的目標。那樣,你(腦部)反而就沒有自由意志,因為手部的動作根本是隨機的,不一定會把你(例如「拿起茶杯」)的意志,化成現實。

如果所有東西也是注定的,你就沒有自由。如果所有東西也是隨機(不注定)的,你也沒有自由。換句話說,「自由」是既建基於「注定」, 亦建基於「不注定」,缺一不可。

所以,「自由」和「注定」的關係是,「自由」建基於「注定」。

它們的關係,有點像「著佐權」(copyleft)和「著作權」(copyright)。

字面上,兩者相反 — 前者是「反版權」,後者是「版權」。實際上,「著佐權」不是「反版權」。「著佐權」建基於「著作權」。正如我在幾個星期之前所講:

Copyleft 的確切執行,建基於完善的 copyright 制度。

當一個地區的著作權(copyright)制度,尚未成熟時,著佐權(copyleft)不能有效發展。

— Me@2015-06-21

2015.06.23 Tuesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Free Software 6

自由軟體 6

Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer.

— Richard Stallman

Free software does not have to be free. Free software does not even have to be cheap.

Free Software Foundation sold each Emacs floppy disk copy for 100 dollars.

— based on my memory of a Richard Stallman’s speech in Hong Kong

[The “$100” may be incorrect. But spirit of the whole paragraph is intact.]

— Me@2013.07.17

R: We should use free software instead of proprietary software. My rule is: I will not use any programs that I cannot share with you.

Q: But sometimes proprietary software is more convenient than free software.

R: What if I want both freedom and convenience?

What can I do?

Either turn convenient software free or turn free software convenient. But turning convenient software free is impossible, because we don’t have the source code and the copyright law does not allow us to do so.

So all we should do is to turn free software convenient.

— based on my memory of a Richard Stallman’s speech in Hong Kong

— Me@2014.04.29

2014.04.29 Tuesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

神作

這段改編自 2010 年 4 月 10 日的對話。

我在網上看到一句說話:

Design is a side effect.

傑作是一種副作用。

(安:什麼意思?)

我不太清楚,作者的原本意思是什麼。我估計,作者想講的,是「form follows function」(形式隨功能)。

大學時候,書院通識科目中,第一科叫做「通識教育導論」。該科的其中一課,由一位建築學教授主講。他在該課中,提到建築學之中,其中一個設計哲學,叫做「form follows function」。你記不記得?

(安:不記得。)

太過份了,你竟然不記得。你不留心聽課,導致少了很多「思考工具」。那現在怎麼辦呢?

不要緊,我可以解釋。

「形式隨功能」這個建築哲學的意思是,一座建築物的設計,並不應純粹是天馬行空,亦不應只顧追求美觀。

或者說,一座建築物之所以視為「設計美觀」,其中一個原因是,那個設計十分有用。美觀,不單只包括視覺之美,還應包括功用之美。兩者缺一不可。

而最高層次的建築,除了可以描述成,「包括了這兩種美」之外,還可以解釋成:

『功用甲』因為必須有『外形乙』才能運行,引發了『外形乙』這個設計;而『外形乙』偏偏亦是,眾多設計中,視覺上最美的。

沒有「功用甲」這動機緣起,就沒有「外形乙」這個設計;視覺上,那建築反而沒有那麼美觀。

例如,Google 公司(谷歌)的搜尋器網站,只有她的商標和一行搜尋欄,十分簡單、直接,沒有任何額外的東西,去滋擾用者。所以,Google 搜尋器網站的設計,堪稱「神作」。

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.

那「近乎零設計」的緣起,原來是 Google 公司成立之初,創辦人沒有資金,去聘請一位專業的設計師,去製作一個「豐富」和「專業」的網站。所以,Sergey Brin 就「製作」了一個可用,但「近乎零設計」的搜尋器網站。

— Me@2014.02.17

2014.02.18 Tuesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

4.13 Walk

Step-by-step approach

1. “He who would learn to fly one day must first learn to stand and walk and run and climb and dance; one cannot fly into flying.” — Friedrich Nietzsche

2. “For things we persist doing become easier, not because of the change of the nature of the thing, but because of the increase of our ability. ” — Emerson

3. “What does not destroy me, makes me stronger.” — Friedrich Nietzsche

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2008.09.08 Monday (c) CHK2

Set you free, 2

Fear | Hope, 4

Sometimes what you’re most afraid of doing is the very thing that will set you free.

— Robert Tew

fear ~ free

— Me@2013-08-21 12:17 PM

Sometimes what set you fear set you free.[1]

— Me@2013-08-21 12:26 PM

[1] Sometimes what set you fearful set you free.

2013.08.21 Wednesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Free Software 5

自由軟體 5 | Consultant 2

Paying represents a recognition of value. Paying is a declaration of commitment.

Without enough payment, people in general will not commit enough time to fully utilize a product. 

— Me@2011.03.17

Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer.

— Richard Stallman

Free software does not have to be free. Free software does not have to be cheap.

Free Software Foundation sold each Emacs copy for 100 dollars.

— based on my memory of a Richard Stallman’s speech in Hong Kong

[The “$100” may be incorrect. But spirit of the whole paragraph is intact.]

— Me@2013.07.17

2013.07.19 Friday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Oceanographers

In any intellectual field, one can reach greater heights by standing on the shoulders of others. But that is no longer generally allowed in the software field — you can only stand on the shoulders of the other people in your own company.

The associated psychosocial harm affects the spirit of scientific cooperation, which used to be so strong that scientists would cooperate even when their countries were at war. In this spirit, Japanese oceanographers abandoning their lab on an island in the Pacific carefully preserved their work for the invading U.S. Marines, and left a note asking them to take good care of it.

Conflict for profit has destroyed what international conflict spared. Nowadays scientists in many fields don’t publish enough in their papers to enable others to replicate the experiment. They publish only enough to let readers marvel at how much they were able to do. This is certainly true in computer science, where the source code for the programs reported on is usually secret.

— Why Software Should Be Free[1]

— Richard Stallman

[1] Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer. — Richard Stallman

2013.06.25 Tuesday ACHK

Saving

If you set a rule of saving one dollar for each dollar spent, the more you spend, the more you save.

— Me@2011.01.06

2013.06.09 Sunday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Freefall

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* We’re in a freefall into future. We don’t know where we’re going. This are changing so fast, and always when you’re going through a long tunnel, anxiety comes along. And all you have to do to transform your hell into a paradise is to turn your fall into a voluntary act. It’s a very interesting shift of perspective and that’s all it is… joyful participation in the sorrows and everything changes.

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— Joseph Campbell

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2009.05.15 Friday ACHK

Push-ups

Being able to do more push-ups doesn’t mean that you can endure more pain. Instead, it means you have stronger muscles so that you can feel less pain for the original number of push-ups.

— Me@2011.09.05

2012.09.01 Saturday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

善利用愚蠢 1.2

這段改編自 2010 年 3 月 20 日的對話。

Stupidity is like nuclear power; it can be used for good or evil.

– Dilbert

(安:那樣,即是愚蠢的人當中,有一部分你無論多麼用心教導,也不會變成賢智的人。那怎麼辦?)

愚蠢人士當中,有機會變成賢智人士的,我簡稱為「向智人士」;而沒有機會的,我則簡稱為「不智人士」。面對「不智人士」,很多時也沒有所謂「怎麼辦」。「面對」「不智人士」的最佳方法是,令到自己毋須面對他們。例如,如果你是一間公司的老闆或者高層管理人員,你的其中一個責任,就是避免聘請到「不智人士」。

(安:但是,有些情況下,無可避免要和「不智人士」相處。那又怎麼辦呢?)

你可以試試 copyleft 了「不智人士」的愚蠢。這裡「copyleft」的意思是,把原本有害的東西,透過新奇的用法,轉化成有益的東西。我會把「copyleft」翻譯成「反利用」,或者「幽默利用」。

例如,你有一個學生不智。他的不智之處,在於人云亦云,不肯有自己的思想,獨立思考。你多次告誡他,老師的話未必正確,所以只能作為參考,不能作為金科玉律。但是,他屢勸不改。那樣,你可以思考一下,怎樣可以善加利用,他這個「人云亦云」的缺點,令到他會長期做利人利己的事。

例如,你可以對他下達指令:對人要有禮貌。由於他「人云亦云」,他自然不會有任何哲學的考慮:「為什麼對人要有禮貌呢?」他只會盲從附和。那樣,他自此一生人,也會對人有禮貌。結果,「人云亦云」在這方面,反而對他有利。

— Me@2012.07.12 

2012.07.12 Thursday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Pay it forward

The expression “pay it forward” is used to describe the concept of asking that a good turn be repaid by having it done to others instead.

The concept was rediscovered and described by Benjamin Franklin, in a letter to Benjamin Webb dated April 22, 1784:

    I do not pretend to give such a Sum; I only lend it to you. When you […] meet with another honest Man in similar Distress, you must pay me by lending this Sum to him; enjoining him to discharge the Debt by a like operation, when he shall be able, and shall meet with another opportunity. I hope it may thus go thro’ many hands, before it meets with a Knave that will stop its Progress. This is a trick of mine for doing a deal of good with a little money.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his 1841 essay Compensation, wrote: “In the order of nature we cannot render benefits to those from whom we receive them, or only seldom. But the benefit we receive must be rendered again, line for line, deed for deed, cent for cent, to somebody.”

In 1916, Lily Hardy Hammond wrote, “You don’t pay love back; you pay it forward.”

— Wikipedia on Pay it forward

2011.08.10 Wednesday ACHK

Copyleft 5.4

問題是,如何將自己編寫的程式作品,發表成「自由軟件」呢?

即使直接「釋放」了自己軟件作品的版權,容許別人任意複製,都不能保證該作品永久是「自由軟件」。你自己沒有保留版權的話,心地不好的人就可以把你的程式修改一點,然後宣稱「版權所有」,從而限制其他人複製。

所以,Richard Stallman 決定保留自己作品的 copyright(版權),不直接「釋放」。取而代之,他用一種很特別的 copyright,名叫「copyleft」。他發表自己的電腦程式時,都是用「copyleft」這種版權。一個程式用「copyleft」版權的話,即是作者容許用家任意複製該程式。作者甚至提供了程式的 source code(源程式碼),讓用家修改該程式。改進了程式後,除了自己使用外,用家還可以把新版本再發表,甚至售予其他人。Copyleft 唯一的「限制」是,「再發表」的程式,一定要是用 copyleft 本身作為版權。這個「限制」,保證了「自由軟件」永久是「自由軟件」。

注意,字面上,copyleft(著佐權)好像是 copyright(著作權)的相反。實際上,copyleft 是 copyright 的一種。

原本,Richard Stallman 不滿現存的 software copyright(軟件版權)制度。但是,他卻發明了 copyleft 來推廣「自由軟件」。他就好像在 copyright 制度上,安裝了一個 virtual machine(虛擬機器)– copyleft,用來制衡 copyright 本身。或者說,copyleft 的存在,是為了彌補 copyright 制度的不足。

Copyleft 的確切執行,建基於完善的 copyright 制度。當一個地方的著作權(copyright)制度還未成熟時,著佐權(copyleft)不能有效發展。

— Me@2010.10.19

2010.10.19 Tuesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Copyleft 5.3

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

他創立了 Free Software Foundation(自由軟件基金會)和啟動了 GNU Project(GNU 項目)。Free Software Foundation 的存在目的,是製作各式各樣的電腦程式,然後將其發表成「自由軟件」。而眾多種類的程式之中,最關鍵的是 Operating System(作業系統程式),所以,GNU Project 的目標是,編寫一個 Free Operating System(自由的作業系統程式)。「Free」的意思是指「自由」。「自由」的意思是,用家買了該個程式後,可以自由複製,甚至複製給朋友使用。

「Free」這個英文字有兩個可能的意思。一個是指「自由」;另一個是指「免費」。在 GNU Project 開始時,Richard Stallman 還沒有分清楚這兩個意思。後來,他再三強調,「Free Software」的意思是指「自由軟件」,不是指「免費軟件」。「自由軟件」是否「免費」,並不是他直接關心的事情。他指出,程式員都可以靠售賣「自由軟件」為生。重點是,不應限制買家如何利用、修改 和 複製 買回來的程式。

問題是,如何將自己編寫的程式作品,發表成「自由軟件」呢?

即使直接「釋放」了自己軟件作品的版權,容許別人任意複製,都不能保證該作品永久是「自由軟件」。你自己沒有保留版權的話,心地不好的人就可以把你的程式修改一點,然後宣稱「版權所有」,從而限制其他人複製。

— Me@2010.10.16

2010.10.16 Saturday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK