In theoretical physics, the **Weinberg–Witten theorem (WW)**, proved by Steven Weinberg and Edward Witten, states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin j > 1/2 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin j > 1 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy. The theorem is usually interpreted to mean that the graviton (j = 2) cannot be a composite particle in a relativistic quantum field theory.

**Theories where the theorem is inapplicable **

Superstring theory

Superstring theory defined over a background metric (possibly with some fluxes) over a 10D space which is the product of a flat 4D Minkowski space and a compact 6D space has a massless graviton in its spectrum. This is an emergent particle coming from the vibrations of a superstring.

— Wikipedia on *Weinberg–Witten theorem*

2012.07.27 Friday ACHK