# 入錄音出文字

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（安：同一個課題，你講出來同寫出來，有什麼分別呢？）

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（安：講的成本低一點，而寫的成本卻高很多。）

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「寫的過程」的費時，但是「寫的結果」則省時。對話沒有紀錄，文字有紀錄。文字本身就是紀錄，可予無數人閱覽。

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— Me@2023-05-30 11:32:44 AM

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# Quicklisp, 2

Euler problem 13

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To run the following code, you have to install the Quicklisp library manager by following the steps in my blog post titled cmu-infix.

(ql:quickload "str")

(defun file-get-contents (filename)
(with-open-file (stream filename)
(let ((contents (make-string
(file-length stream))))
contents)))

(defun file-get-lines (filename)
(with-open-file (stream filename)
(loop :for line = (read-line stream nil)
:while line
:collect line)))

(file-get-lines #P"n.txt")

(defun string-to-list (the-string)
(loop :for char :across the-string
:collect char))

(defun char-to-integer-list (char-list)
(mapcar #'digit-char-p char-list))

(let ((the-list (file-get-contents #P"n.txt")))
(subseq
(prin1-to-string
(reduce
#'+
(mapcar
#'parse-integer
(butlast (str:split #\newline the-list)))))
0 10))


— Me@2023-05-26 12:16:50 PM

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# Ex 1.29 A particle of mass m slides off a horizontal cylinder, 1.1

Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics

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A particle of mass $m$ slides off a horizontal cylinder of radius $R$ in a uniform gravitational field with acceleration $g$. If the particle starts close to the top of the cylinder with zero initial speed, with what angular velocity does it leave the cylinder?

~~~

Along the tangential direction,

$\displaystyle{m \frac{dv}{dt} = m g \sin \theta - f_a - f}$

Assuming there is only air friction,

$\displaystyle{m \frac{dv}{dt} = m g \sin \theta - f_a}$

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If the air resistance $\displaystyle{f_a}$ equals $\displaystyle{\frac{\beta m v^2}{2 R}}$,

$\displaystyle{ m \frac{dv}{dt} = m g \sin \theta - \frac{\beta m v^2}{2 R} }$

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Along the normal direction,

\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} F_{\text{net}} &= F_C \\ m g \cos \theta - F_R &= \frac{m v^2}{R} \\ \end{aligned}},

where $\displaystyle{F_R}$ is the normal reaction force.

So

\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} m R \frac{d \dot \theta}{dt} &= m g \sin \theta - \frac{\beta}{2} \left( m g \cos \theta - F_R \right) \\ R \ddot \theta &= g \sin \theta - \frac{\beta}{2} \left( g \cos \theta - F_R \right) \\ \end{aligned}}

This equation is not useful yet, because $\displaystyle{F_R(\theta(t))}$ is still not known. So we keep using the original equation:

\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} m \frac{dv}{dt} &= m g \sin \theta - \frac{\beta m v^2}{2 R} \\ R \frac{d^2 \theta}{dt^2} &= g \sin \theta - \frac{\beta R \dot \theta^2}{2} \\ \end{aligned}}

Let

\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} u &= \dot \theta^2 \\ \end{aligned}}

— Me@2023-05-23 11:02:25 AM

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# Not a number

Infinity is not a number.

Infinity is a process of ever increasing.

An ever-increasing process cannot be assigned a number.

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At a particular time, the process has a particular number such as density.

But the whole process itself cannot be assigned a number.

— Me@2016-04-24 07:10:28 AM

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# 原因非理由

— Me@2016-03-31 08:35:43 PM

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# VirtualBox Start

In KDE, when a Virtualbox virtual machine is turned on, sometimes, both the guest OS and the host OS would capture the Super key at the same time. In order to avoid that, use the following steps:

1. Right-click the VirtualBox title bar

2. Choose:

More Actions
$\to$ Special Window Settings
$\to$ Ignore Global Shortcuts (in Appearance and Fixes)
$\to$ Force $\to$ Yes

— Me@2023-05-17 07:52:55 PM

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# 3.4 Electric fields and potentials of point charges, 2

A First Course in String Theory

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(b) Show that with $d$ spatial dimensions, the potential $\Phi$ due to a point charge $q$ is given by

$\displaystyle{\Phi(r) = \frac{\Gamma \left( \frac{d}{2} - 1 \right)}{4 \pi^{d/2}} \frac{q}{r^{d-2}}}$

~~~

Eq. (3.74):

$\displaystyle{E(r) = \frac{\Gamma\left( \frac{d}{2} \right)}{2 \pi^{\frac{d}{2}}} \frac{q}{r^{d-1}}}$

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\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} E(r) &= -\frac{d\Phi(r)}{dr} \\ \\ \int_r^{\infty} d\Phi &= - \frac{\Gamma\left( \frac{d}{2} \right)}{2 \pi^{\frac{d}{2}}} q \int_r^{\infty} r^{-d+1} dr \\ \\ \Phi(\infty) - \Phi(r) &= \frac{\Gamma\left( \frac{d}{2} \right)}{4 \pi^{\frac{d}{2}}} \frac{q}{\frac{d}{2}-1} \left[\frac{1}{r^{d-2}} \right]_r^{\infty} \\ \\ \Gamma (z) &= \frac{\Gamma (z+1)}{z} \\ \\ \Phi(r) &= \frac{\Gamma\left( \frac{d}{2} - 1\right)}{4 \pi^{\frac{d}{2}}} \frac{q}{r^{d-2}} \\ \\ \end{aligned} }

— Me@2023-05-17 09:11:07 AM

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# Random variable

Random variable $X$ represents a single-valued result of a random event. Its value is unknown to us, not because of our ignorance, but because of its non-existence. The value exists only after the happening of that random event.

Symbol $x$ represents a particular value of $X$. It is an existing value that can be substituted to $X$. We use symbol $x$ instead of a number because we have not yet known what that particular number is.

— Me@2016-04-08 05:24:45 PM

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X ~ random variable

It is a variable due to the fact that the “identical” random process can result differently at different times.

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x ~ a value of X

Since it is a particular value of X, it is not a variable. However, it may seem to be a variable because it may still be unknown to us.

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Symbol $P(X)$ is meaningless because inside, it must be a statement (representing an event). Symbol $X$ is a random variable, not a statement.

Instead, “$X=x$” is a statement. So expression $P(X=x)$ is meaningful, such as

$P(X=x) = {\begin{cases}{\frac {1}{2}},&x=0,\\{\frac {1}{2}},&x=1,\\0,&x\notin \{0,1\} \end{cases}}$

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From another point of view, $X$ is a noun phrase, such as “my monthly salary”, not a number. Symbol $x$ is a number, although maybe not known yet. That’s why whatever the formula, it contains no $X$‘s, but $x$‘s. For example,

$\cdots = {\begin{cases}{\frac {1}{2}},&x=0,\\{\frac {1}{2}},&x=1,\\0,&x\notin \{0,1\} \end{cases}}$

— Me@2016-05-04 06:32:24 PM

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# NotesOrganization

"A real person has two reasons for doing anything...
a good reason and the real reason."

…

One today worths two tomorrows.

Do one thing well. Do exactly what a customer wants,
nothing more, nothing less.

You can't solve all the problems. You can't satisfy
all the people.

Constructive laziness is one of the cardinal virtues
of a master programmer.

"such a final theory must be concerned not with fields,
not even with spacetime, but rather with information
exchange among physical processes."

…

04[.]08[.]2003

A good scientist is a person with original ideas.
A good engineer is a person who makes a design
that works with as few original ideas as possible.
There are no prima donnas in engineering.
-- Freeman Dyson

"There are two kinds of researchers:
those that have implemented something and
those that have not. The latter will tell you that
there are 142 ways of doing things and that
there isn't consensus on which is best.
The former will simply tell you that 141 of them
don't work."

ResearchNotesOrganization


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2023.05.14 Sunday ACHK

# 電腦革命

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— Me@2023-03-10 11:00:16 AM

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# Euler problem 12.2

primes :: [Integer]
primes = 2 : filter (null . tail . primeFactors) [3, 5 ..]

primeFactors :: Integer -> [Integer]
primeFactors n = factor n primes
where
factor n (p : ps)
| p * p > n = [n]
| n mod p == 0 = p : factor (n div p) (p : ps)
| otherwise = factor n ps

groupFactors :: [Integer] -> [[Integer]]
groupFactors = gf []
where
gf acc lst
| null lst = reverse acc
| null acc = gf [[p,1]] ps
--
--
| otherwise = gf ([p,1]:acc) ps
where
ps = tail lst

nDiv :: Integer -> Integer
nDiv n = product (map ((1+) . head . tail)
(groupFactors (primeFactors n)))

fm :: Integer -> Integer -> Integer
fm m n
| triDiv n > m = n*(n+1) div 2
| otherwise = fm m (n+1)
where
triDiv n
| even n = nDiv (n div 2)*nDiv (n+1)
| otherwise = nDiv n*nDiv ((n+1) div 2)


λ> :set +s
λ> fm 500 1
76576500
(0.20 secs, 199,313,728 bytes)
λ> 

— Me@2023-05-04 09:51:19 AM

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# Ex 2.2 Stereographic Projection

Functional Differential Geometry

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The points on the plane can also be specified with polar coordinates $\displaystyle{(\rho, \theta)}$ and the points on the sphere are specified both by Riemann coordinates and the traditional colatitude and longitude $\displaystyle{(\phi, \lambda)}$.

(show-expression
((compose
(chart S2-spherical)
(point S2-Riemann)
(chart R2-rect)
(point R2-polar))
(up 'rho 'theta)))


~~~

1. The code


(up 'rho 'theta)


represents the polar coordinates of a point.

2. The function


(point R2-polar)


generates an abstract point from a point in R2-polar coordinates.

3. The function


(chart R2-rect)


gives the rect coordinates given an abstract point on the plane R2.

(show-expression
((compose
(chart R2-rect)
(point R2-polar))
(up 'rho 'theta)))

4.

The procedure (point S2-Riemann) gives the point on the sphere given rectangular coordinates on the plane.

In other words, the function


(point S2-Riemann)


generates an abstract point-on-the-sphere (S2) from a point-on-the-plane (R2) in rect coordinates. In other words,


S2-Riemann

means


S2-rect

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5.

Perform an analogous computation to get the polar coordinates of the point on the plane corresponding to a point on the sphere given by its colatitude and longitude.

(show-expression
((compose
(chart R2-polar)
(point R2-rect)
(chart S2-Riemann)
(point S2-spherical))
(up 'phi 'lambda)))

— Me@2023-04-22 10:42:50 PM

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Posted in FDG

# Split-brain, 2.1

y-c-o-m-b 8 months ago | next [–]

I have schizotypal personality disorder. For me it feels like a collective, kind of like the borg. I say “me” or “I” when communicating externally, but all thoughts are actually communicated as “us”. All entities speak with the same voice (what most people think of as their inside voice), but each one speaks differently, with a different pace/tone, and has its own personality, thoughts, and desires. There are a handful of dominant ones that sit in the captain’s chair so to speak, and they all have a say in how we behave externally.

For example one of us is a pacifist, another one loves to socialize and party, one is cautious and anxious, the other very confident, and there’s one that has a severe thirst for violence and blood-lust (this one we work hard to keep in check). I’ve literally been in fights where immediately after knocking my opponent down, I ask if they’re ok and then help them back up and let them go. Then there’s hundreds of transient entities that are usually clones of personalities observed elsewhere (movie characters, celebrities, or other influential people). These transient types will actually adopt the mannerisms, voice, and even accent of the personalities and display them outwardly! Makes for very weird interactions with family and friends lol.

I’ve yet to see anyone on reddit or elsewhere with this description of the disorder. The closest thing is DID or maybe even borderline personality disorder (which is on the same schizo spectrum), but there’s no disassociation with what I have, we’re all fully aware of what the other is thinking.

— Split Brain Psychology

— Hacker News

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2023.04.20 Thursday ACHK

# 權力來源 1.4

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~ environmental default

— Me@2021-11-16 07:59:12 PM

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~ potential

~ 未來事件s對現在的影響

— Me@2023-03-12 09:14:50 AM

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potential energy

~ energy of potential motion

~ energy of future motion

— Me@2023-04-16 12:08:08 PM

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~ 勢力

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「權力」著重個人，例如：「甲擁有很大的權力。」「勢」則著重外在。甲身處環境的人事心理結構，形成了一個「勢」。如果當時的那個「勢」對甲有利，就簡稱為：「甲擁有很大的勢力。」

— Me@2023-04-17 12:56:11 AM

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# MacBook Pro A1502

Euler problem 12.1.2

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(defun good-reverse (lst)
(labels ((rev (lst acc)
(if (null lst)
acc
(rev
(cdr lst)
(cons (car lst) acc)))))
(rev lst nil)))

(defparameter *primes* '(2 3 5))

(defun primeFactors (n)
(factor-iter n *primes* '()))

(defun range (max &key (min 0) (step 1))
(loop :for n :from min :below max :by step
collect n))

(defun primep (x)
(NULL (cdr (primeFactors x))))

(defun factor-iter (n p-list acc-list)
(let* ((p (car p-list))
(ps (cdr p-list)))
(cond ((> (* p p) n)
(good-reverse (cons n
acc-list)))
((eql (mod n p) 0)
(factor-iter (floor n p)
p-list
(cons p acc-list)))
((NULL ps)
(let* ((op
*primes*)
(num-extend
(range (1+
(ceiling (sqrt n)))
:min (+ p 2)
:step 2))
(primes-extend
(remove-if-not
#'primep
num-extend)))
(if (NULL primes-extend)
(cons n acc-list)
(progn
(setf *primes*
(append op primes-extend))
(factor-iter n
primes-extend
acc-list)))))
('t
(factor-iter n ps acc-list)))))

(defmacro prime-filter (n)
(remove-if-not #'primep
(cons 2
(range (1+ ,n)
:min 3
:step 2))))

(time (length (prime-filter 20000000)))

;; Evaluation took:
;; 13.056 seconds of real time

;; 1270607
`

— Me@2023-03-28 11:51:24 AM

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# Ex 1.28 The energy function

Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics

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An analogous result holds when the $f_\alpha$‘s depend explicitly on time.

c. Show, using Euler’s theorem, that the energy function is $\mathcal{E} = A + B$.

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If

\displaystyle{ \begin{aligned} f(t x_1, t x_2, ...) &= t^n f( x_1, x_2 , ...), \\ \end{aligned}}

then

\displaystyle{ \begin{aligned} \sum_{i} x_i \frac{\partial f}{\partial x_i} &= n f(\mathbf{x}) \\ \end{aligned}}

— Euler’s Homogeneous Function Theorem

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\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} L + D_t F &= A - B \\ \\ D_t F &= - \frac{1}{2} \sum_\alpha m_\alpha \left \{ g_\alpha(t,q) + [\partial_0 f_\alpha (t,q)]^2 + 2 \partial_0 f_\alpha (t,q) \partial_1 f_\alpha (t,q) v \right \} \\ \\ A &= \frac{1}{2} \sum_\alpha m_\alpha [\partial_1 f_\alpha (t,q) ]v^2 \\ - B &= - V(t, q) - \frac{1}{2} \sum_\alpha m_\alpha g_\alpha(t,q) \\ \end{aligned}}

This answer is not totally correct, since the generalized velocity, $v$, should be a vector.

— Me@2022-11-01 08:58:52 AM

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Eq. (1.133):

$\displaystyle{\mathcal{P}_i = (\partial_2 L)_i}$

Eq. (1.144):

$\displaystyle{\mathcal{E} = \mathcal{P} \dot Q - L}$,

where $\displaystyle{\mathcal{P}}$ is the momentum state function.

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\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} \mathcal{E} &= \mathcal{P} \dot Q - A + B \\ &= \left( \partial_2 L \right) \dot Q - A + B \\ &= \left( \partial_2 (A - B) \right) \dot Q - A + B \\ \end{aligned}}

Since $B$ has no velocity dependence,

\displaystyle{\begin{aligned} \mathcal{E} &= \left( \partial_2 A \right) \dot Q - A + B \\ &= \begin{bmatrix} (\partial_2 A)_1 & (\partial_2 A)_2 & ... \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} \dot Q_1 \\ \dot Q_2 \\ \vdots \end{bmatrix} - A + B \\ \\ \end{aligned}}

Since $A$ is a homogeneous function of the generalized velocities of degree 2, by Euler’s Homogeneous Function Theorem,

\displaystyle{ \begin{aligned} \sum_{i} v_i \frac{\partial A}{\partial v_i} &= 2 A(v) \\ \end{aligned}}

— Me@2023-04-06 12:49:49 PM

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# 無限思維

Thinking in terms of infinity

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「無限」不是數字，不能用來比較大小。

— Me@2016-05-24 12:12:33 PM

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— Me@2023-04-02 03:38:07 PM

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Infinity is not a number. So it cannot be used for comparing.

As long as you use “infinity”, you stop weighing the pros and cons.

In other words, you stop reasoning.

— Me@2023-04-02 01:51:06 PM

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“Optimization without constraints” is not optimization.

— Me@2023-04-02 03:41:19 PM

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# History 5

bambax on June 17, 2018

Not just music history, but history in general.

History told forwards is superstition: trying to show that what came after was inevitable, when in fact it was one future among an infinite number of different possible futures.

History told backwards makes sense: look for the seeds of post events, in the past.

However the human mind loves nothing more than causation; we see cause and effect everywhere even where it’s not, we like “stories”, we don’t understand, don’t believe in, and outright reject chance.

— We Should Teach Music History Backwards

— Hacker News

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2023.04.01 Saturday ACHK