Total Football

荷蘭足球

全能足球

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“Total Football” is the label given to an influential tactical theory of association football in which any outfield player can take over the role of any other player in a team (save the goalkeeper). It was pioneered by Dutch football club Ajax from 1969 to 1973, and further used by the Netherlands National Football Team in the 1974 FIFA World Cup. It was invented by Rinus Michels, a famous Dutch football trainer/coach (who was the coach of both Ajax and the Netherlands national team at the time).

In Total Football, a player who moves out of his position is replaced by another from his team, thus retaining the team’s intended organizational structure. In this fluid system, no player is fixed in his nominal role; anyone can be successively an attacker, a midfielder and a defender. The only player fixed in his nominal position is the goalkeeper.

Total Football’s tactical success depends largely on the adaptability of each footballer within the team, in particular his ability to quickly switch positions depending on the on-field situation. The theory requires players to be comfortable in multiple positions; hence, it places high technical and physical demands on them.

— Wikipedia on Total Football

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2010.06.30 Wednesday ACHK

人格堤壩

堤壩有缺口,就很容易被完全摧毀,所以必須立刻修補。如果不修補缺口,又要避免堤壩被毀的話,你就要保證那個缺口不會變大。但是,「防止缺口變大」的工程成本,往往會比「直接修補缺口」大。所以,「選擇『防止缺口變大』,而不選擇『直接修補缺口』」是庸人自擾的做法。

如果你的人格有缺失,例如,你是一個不誠實的人,你就很容易會被你自己的謊言所摧毀。要麼你就改正自己,不要再說謊。要麼你就好好「經營」那堆謊言,保證它們不會變大。但是,「防止謊言變多變大」的精神成本,往往會比「直接修補人格」大。所以,「選擇『經營謊言』,而不選擇『經營人格』」是庸人自擾的做法。

記住,千萬不要說假話,除非遇上極端的情形。「極端的情形」是指「如果當時不立刻直接說假話,別人或自己就會受到嚴重的傷害」。但是,既然稱得上是「極端的情形」,即是很少會發生。所以,在絕大部分情況下,你是不需要說假話的。

但是,在現實中,很多時有「不能說真話」的情況。那怎麼辦呢?

「不能說真話」並不代表「需要說假話」,因為你可選擇「既不說真話,又不說假話」。方法有很多,例如:

1. 不說話;

2. 說廢話;

3. 說模稜兩可的話;

4. 逃走;

5. etc.

— Me@2010.06.30

2010.06.30 Wednesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Superstring theory

It wasn’t clear how relevant this is to the physics of our particular universe, but at the end of the talk Dijkgraaf urged us not to worry about that too much: after all, the math is so pretty in its own right. Insofar as I’m a physicist this makes me unhappy – but in my other persona, as a mathematician, it makes sense.

— John Baez

2010.06.29 Tuesday ACHK

偉大o既藝術家

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當乜野人都唔搵我做野,我就知道,我係一個偉大o既藝術家,在生o既時候係唔會獲得應得o既尊重。

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唔止咁,我重偉大過偉大o既藝術家,因為我知道,我死後都唔會受到尊重。

— 黃子華

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2010.06.29 Tuesday ACHK

選圖問題 2

Choosing a graph 2

多項選擇題 2.2

Multiple Choices 2.2

1991-CE-PHY II-7 a

這段改篇自 2010 年 3 月 18 日的對話。

這題的重點是,你要間底(underline)「constant force(恆力)」。

上次我提過,在閱讀 MC(Multiple Choices, 多項選擇)題目時,你一定要間底重要的字眼(underlining the keywords)。通常每組重要字眼,都會對應於一條公式。

例如,在這一題(1991-CE-PHY II-7),你間底了「constant force」和「initially at rest(初始時,物體為靜止)」。「Constant force」對應於「constant acceleration(恆加速度)」,因為 F = ma 。 而「constant acceleration」就代表你可以用以下的 kinematic equations(運動學方程):

因為這 4 條式假設了「constant acceleration」,所以,在不是「constant acceleration」的情況下,就不可以用。換言之,如果題目提到「constant acceleration」的話,即是暗示了你要用那四條 kinematic equations 的其中一條。

Constant force –> constant acceleration –> kinematic equations

— Me@2010.06.29

2010.06.29 Tuesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Cosmic string

String theory and cosmic strings

There is no direct connection between string theory and the theory of cosmic strings (the names were chosen independently by analogy with ordinary string).

However, work in string theory revived interest in cosmic strings in the early 2000s. In 2002 Henry Tye and collaborators observed the production of cosmic strings during the last stages of brane inflation. It was also pointed out by string theorist Joseph Polchinski that the expanding Universe could have stretched a “fundamental” string (the sort which superstring theory considers) until it was of intergalactic size. Such a stretched string would exhibit many of the properties of the old “cosmic” string variety, making the older calculations useful again. Furthermore, modern superstring theories offer other objects which could feasibly resemble cosmic strings, such as highly elongated one-dimensional D-branes (known as “D-strings”). As theorist Tom Kibble remarks, “string theory cosmologists have discovered cosmic strings lurking everywhere in the undergrowth”. Older proposals for detecting cosmic strings could now be used to investigate superstring theory.

— Wikipedia on Cosmic string

2010.06.28 Monday ACHK

Isaac Newton

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To do really great things, you have to seek out questions people didn’t even realize were questions.

You only get one life. Why not do something huge?

And you know more are out there, separated from us by what will later seem a surprisingly thin wall of laziness and stupidity.

— Paul Graham

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2010.06.28 Monday ACHK

專利

「專利制度」表面上,主要是為了保障新產品發明者的利益而設的。那是大眾的誤解。實情是,「專利制度」的存在,主要是為了社會的整體利益。文明社會確立「專利制度」,是「兩害取其輕」的結果。

在有「專利制度」之前,新產品發明者為了保障自己的利益,往往會隱藏新產品的建構方法,導致很多新創見隨著發明者的離世而失傳。為了避免這種情形,人們創立了「專利制度」,容許新產品發明者為自己的新設計申請「專利」。申請成功的話,社會就賦予發明者長達大約 17 年的特權:只有他可以使用該設計來製造產品。

為什麼那就可以避免「新創見失傳」呢?

申請「專利」的先決條件是,發明者不單要公開自己新產品的建構方法,而且還要鉅細無遺地描述,哪些地方是全新的意念。在 17 年過後,全人類可以共同擁有使用那些新意念。

— Me@2010.06.28

2010.06.28 Monday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Fourth dimension

Visual scope

Being three-dimensional, we are only able to see the world with our eyes in two dimensions. A four-dimensional being would be able to see the world in three dimensions. For example, it would be able to see all six sides of an opaque box simultaneously, and in fact, what is inside the box at the same time, just as we can see the interior of a square on a piece of paper. It would be able to see all points in 3-dimensional space simultaneously, including the inner structure of solid objects and things obscured from our three-dimensional viewpoint.

— Wikipedia on Fourth dimension

2010.06.27 Sunday ACHK

選圖問題

Choosing a graph

1990-CE-PHY II-1

1990-CE-PHY II-4

1990-CE-PHY II-8

1991-CE-PHY II-3

1991-CE-PHY II-7

1992-CE-PHY II-1

1993-CE-PHY II-5

1994-CE-PHY II-9

1995-CE-PHY II-4

1996-CE-PHY II-4

2000-CE-PHY II-7

2000-CE-PHY II-9

2001-CE-PHY II-7

2002-CE-PHY II-3

2002-CE-PHY II-8

— Me@2010.06.27

2010.06.27 Sunday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Anti de Sitter space

Some of the differences between the familiar Newtonian equation of gravity and the predictions of general relativity flow from the fact that gravity in general relativity bends both time and space, not just space. In normal circumstances, gravity bends time so slightly that the difference between Newtonian gravity and general relativity that results is so slight that it is impossible to detect without scientific instruments.

— Wikipedia on Anti de Sitter space

2010.06.26 Saturday ACHK

魔間傳奇 3

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I’m the last survivor of a dead culture. And I don’t really belong in the world anymore. And in some ways I feel I ought to be dead. I have certainly wished I had killed myself when I was born.

In terms of effect on the world, it’s very good that I’ve lived. And so I guess, if I could go back in time and prevent my birth, I wouldn’t do it. But I sure wish I hadn’t had so much pain.

— Richard Stallman, inventor of the Copyleft

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2010.06.26 Saturday ACHK

傳世之作

網誌時代 4

簡言之,即使兩者的文章完全相同,「閱讀網誌」和「閱讀書本」的感覺不同,引致有不同的效果。

而且,如果真的把網誌化成書本的話,很少作者會真的把自己網誌的所有文章,也原封不動地列印成書。作者通常也會只選擇網誌中,較滿意的文章,然後再稍作整理,才把它們輯錄成書。「稍作整理」的工作量是十分驚人的。即使不作任何整理,單單是「選擇文章」時要取捨得好,已經需要相當的功力。

選擇文章後,除了要為被選文章「稍作整理」外,還要為它們「排次序」。「排次序」本身,並不是次要的工作,因為即使是同一堆文章,不同的次序,可以帶出不同的意境。

換言之,要把網誌文章輯錄成書,而又有機會成為「傳世之作」的話,起碼要過 4 關,即是要 文章好、取捨好、整理好 和 次序好。

— Me@2010.06.25

Words differently arranged have a different meaning, and meanings differently arranged have a different effect.

— Blaise Pascal

2010.06.26 Saturday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

The Phone Book

In physics, Gravitation is a very important reference book on Einstein’s theory of gravity by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler. Often considered the “Bible” of General Relativity by researchers for its prominence, it is frequently called MTW after its authors’ initials, or “the Phone Book” due to its immense size. It was published by W.H. Freeman and Company in 1973. The book, a massive tome of over 1200 pages, covers many aspects of the General Theory of Relativity and also considers some extensions and experimental confirmation. The book is divided into two “tracks”, the second of which covers more advanced topics for more capable or determined students. MTW uses the -+++ metric convention. The book is famous/infamous for its use of boxes to add supplementary substance to the already thorough main text.

* Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973-09-15 1973), Gravitation, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0

# This page was last modified on 30 October 2009 at 08:50.
# Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.

— Wikipedia on Gravitation (book)

2010.06.25 Friday ACHK

Being right

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Inactivity as intelligent

* We don’t get paid for activity, just for being right. As to how long we’ll wait, we’ll wait indefinitely.

o 1998 Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting

— Warren Buffett

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2010.06.25 Friday ACHK

間時間表(前傳)

Half an Hour 2.5

Timetable for high school study 10.4

這段改篇自 2010 年 2 月 7 日的對話。

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
3 hours Physics Applied Maths Pure Maths Physics Applied Maths
1 hour Chinese English Chinese English Chinese
1 hour
3 hours Pure Maths Physics Applied Maths Pure Maths Physics

以上就是「自動時間表」的「基本設定」。在「基本設定」之上,你需要再加一些重要細節。

3 hours Physics

一個正常人在一般的情況下,很難可以連續專心思考三小時。所以,我建議你把「三小時的一格」間開(分割)成「六格半小時」,然後每次只要求自己連續集中思考半小時。

30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics

如果你不用這個方法的話,那三個小時通常也會這樣度過:第一格用來去洗手間;第二格用來去冰箱拿東西吃;第三格用來接電話;第四格用來執拾書桌;第五格用來內疚;第六格用來傷心。

30 minutes 去洗手間
30 minutes 去廚房
30 minutes 接電話
30 minutes 執拾房間
30 minutes 內疚
30 minutes 傷心

(LWT etc:哈哈 … )

你們笑,即是有共鳴。有共鳴,即是平時也是這樣浪費時間的。那又毋須過份責怪自己,因為年青人都是那樣的。我自己年青時,也是那樣的。

要盡量避免這個情況的話,你可以用這個「程式」(機械程序):

第一,把「三小時的一格」間開成「六格半小時」,每次只要求自己連續集中思考半小時。

30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics
30 minutes Physics

第二,每格半小時後,都應該有 5 分鐘的休息。

30 minutes Physics
5 minutes
30 minutes Physics
5 minutes
30 minutes Physics
5 minutes
30 minutes Physics
5 minutes
30 minutes Physics
5 minutes
30 minutes Physics

第三,在每一格半小時內,不可以做溫習以外的任何其他東西,除非事關重大,例如火警逃生。

第四,溫習以外的任何其他事情,例如 去洗手間、去廚房、接電話、執拾房間、內疚 和 傷心 等,應該堆積在那些 5 分鐘方格內,一次過完成。

第五,在每一格半小時內,不可以看時鐘或手錶。你看時間的話,即代表你已經分了心。不看時鐘手錶,又怎樣可以知道「已經夠半小時」呢?你應該用鬧鐘鬧錶的響鬧聲,作為報時信號。

— Me@2010.06.24

2010.06.25 Friday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

Aprioricity, necessity, and analyticity

Thus, the relationship between aprioricity, necessity, and analyticity is not easy to discern. However, most philosophers at least seem to agree that while the various distinctions may overlap, the notions are clearly not identical: the a priori/a posteriori distinction is epistemological, the analytic/synthetic distinction is linguistic, and the necessary/contingent distinction is metaphysical.

— Wikipedia on A priori and a posteriori

2010.06.24 Thursday ACHK

英雄

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英雄,很多時會被他所救的人殺死。

所以,千萬不要做英雄。

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或者,做了英雄,也千萬不要給人知道。

— Me@2010.02.20

— Me@2010.06.24

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2010.06.24 Thursday copyright ACHK