Total Football

荷蘭足球

全能足球

.

“Total Football” is the label given to an influential tactical theory of association football in which any outfield player can take over the role of any other player in a team (save the goalkeeper). It was pioneered by Dutch football club Ajax from 1969 to 1973, and further used by the Netherlands National Football Team in the 1974 FIFA World Cup. It was invented by Rinus Michels, a famous Dutch football trainer/coach (who was the coach of both Ajax and the Netherlands national team at the time).

In Total Football, a player who moves out of his position is replaced by another from his team, thus retaining the team’s intended organizational structure. In this fluid system, no player is fixed in his nominal role; anyone can be successively an attacker, a midfielder and a defender. The only player fixed in his nominal position is the goalkeeper.

Total Football’s tactical success depends largely on the adaptability of each footballer within the team, in particular his ability to quickly switch positions depending on the on-field situation. The theory requires players to be comfortable in multiple positions; hence, it places high technical and physical demands on them.

— Wikipedia on Total Football

.

.

.

2010.06.30 Wednesday ACHK

人格堤壩

堤壩有缺口,就很容易被完全摧毀,所以必須立刻修補。如果不修補缺口,又要避免堤壩被毀的話,你就要保證那個缺口不會變大。但是,「防止缺口變大」的工程成本,往往會比「直接修補缺口」大。所以,「選擇『防止缺口變大』,而不選擇『直接修補缺口』」是庸人自擾的做法。

如果你的人格有缺失,例如,你是一個不誠實的人,你就很容易會被你自己的謊言所摧毀。要麼你就改正自己,不要再說謊。要麼你就好好「經營」那堆謊言,保證它們不會變大。但是,「防止謊言變多變大」的精神成本,往往會比「直接修補人格」大。所以,「選擇『經營謊言』,而不選擇『經營人格』」是庸人自擾的做法。

記住,千萬不要說假話,除非遇上極端的情形。「極端的情形」是指「如果當時不立刻直接說假話,別人或自己就會受到嚴重的傷害」。但是,既然稱得上是「極端的情形」,即是很少會發生。所以,在絕大部分情況下,你是不需要說假話的。

但是,在現實中,很多時有「不能說真話」的情況。那怎麼辦呢?

「不能說真話」並不代表「需要說假話」,因為你可選擇「既不說真話,又不說假話」。方法有很多,例如:

1. 不說話;

2. 說廢話;

3. 說模稜兩可的話;

4. 逃走;

5. etc.

— Me@2010.06.30

2010.06.30 Wednesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK