# Euler Formula

Exponential, 2 $a^x$

general exponential increase ~ the effects are cumulative $e^x$

natural exponential increase ~ every step has immediate and cumulative effects

— Me@2014-10-29 04:44:51 PM

exponent growth $e^x = \lim_{n \to \infty} \left(1 + \frac{x}{n}\right)^n$

~ compound interest effects with infinitesimal time intervals

multiply -1

~ rotate to the opposite direction

(rotate the position vector of a number on the real number line to the opposite direction)

~ rotate 180 degrees

multiply i

~ rotate to the perpendicular direction

~ rotate 90 degrees

For example, the complex number (3, 0) times i equals (0, 3): $3 \times i = 3 i$ $(3, 0) (0, 1) = (0, 3)$

multiplying i

~ change the direction to the one perpendicular to the current moving direction

(current moving direction ~ the direction of a number’s position vector)

exponential growth with an imaginary amount $e^{i \theta} = \lim_{n \to \infty} \left( 1 + \frac{i \theta}{n} \right)^n$

~ change the direction to the one perpendicular to the current moving direction continuously

~ rotate $\theta$ radians

— Me@2016-06-05 04:04:13 PM