Uncertainty Principle 8

EPR paradox for entangled particles

Bohr was compelled to modify his understanding of the uncertainty principle after another thought experiment by Einstein. In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (see EPR paradox) published an analysis of widely separated entangled particles. Measuring one particle, Einstein realized, would alter the probability distribution of the other, yet here the other particle could not possibly be disturbed. This example led Bohr to revise his understanding of the principle, concluding that the uncertainty was not caused by a direct interaction.

But Einstein came to much more far-reaching conclusions from the same thought experiment. He believed the “natural basic assumption” that a complete description of reality, would have to predict the results of experiments from “locally changing deterministic quantities”, and therefore, would have to include more information than the maximum possible allowed by the uncertainty principle.

In 1964, John Bell showed that this assumption can be falsified, since it would imply a certain inequality between the probabilities of different experiments. Experimental results confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics, ruling out Einstein’s basic assumption that led him to the suggestion of his hidden variables. Ironically this fact is one of the best pieces of evidence supporting Karl Popper’s philosophy of invalidation of a theory by falsification-experiments. That is to say, here Einstein’s “basic assumption” became falsified by experiments based on Bell’s inequalities.

While it is possible to assume that quantum mechanical predictions are due to nonlocal, hidden variables, and in fact David Bohm invented such a formulation, this resolution is not satisfactory to the vast majority of physicists. The question of whether a random outcome is predetermined by a nonlocal theory can be philosophical, and it can be potentially intractable. If the hidden variables are not constrained, they could just be a list of random digits that are used to produce the measurement outcomes.

— Wikipedia on Uncertainty principle

2017.01.18 Wednesday ACHK

Zooming out

In this morning’s dream, I had seen an ultra zooming out of the universe, where in the end the universe became a particle of a super-universe.

Perhaps the afterlife (or near-death experience) is like this kind of bizarre feeling.

— Me@2011.08.17 

It is a fractal.

— Me@2011.08.22

Note: This kind of feeling is unhealthy, since it is induced by eating too little food.

— Me@2017.01.09

Several months ago, I had another this kind of super-feeling dream, in which I could get a time traveling feeling.

— Me@2011.08.17 

2017.01.14 Saturday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK

注定外傳 2.3.3

Can it be Otherwise? 2.3.3


彷彿是「神的旨意」一樣 — 即使有「神的旨意」,它並不能指引你,去做最佳的決定。













— Me@2016-12-30 03:37:35 PM

2017.01.01 Sunday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK