EPR paradox, 12.1

A wave function (for a particular variable) is an intrinsic property of a physical system.

“Physical system” means the experimental-setup design, which includes not just objects and devices, but also operations.

In other words, “where and when an observer should do what during the experiment” is actually part of your experimental-setup design, defining what probability distribution (for any particular variable) you (the observer) will get.

If the experimenter does not follow the original experiment design, such as not turning on the detector at the pre-defined time, then he is actually doing another experiment, which will have a completely different probability distribution (for any particular variable).

— Me@2022-02-18 07:40:14 AM

— Me@2022-02-22 07:01:40 PM

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Note that different observers see different “physical systems”. They see different quantum states, because a quantum state is actually not a “state”, but a (statistical) property of a system, encoded in the superposition coefficients.

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Experiment A:

In an EPR experiment, if it is by design that an observer will not turn on the detector, then the story should be that this experiment-setup is always in a superposition state (with respect to the variable-not-to-be-measured).

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Experiment B:

In an EPR experiment, if it is by design that an observer will turn on the detector before a particle’s arrival, then the story should be that this experiment-setup is always in a mixed state (with respect to the variable-to-be-measured).

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No concept of “wave function collapse” is needed.

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What if during Experiment A, the observer changes his mind to turn on the detector before the particle's arrival?

He has actually replaced experiment-setup A with experiment-setup B.

Then is the experiment always in a superposition state? Or always in a mixed state?

As a language shortcut, you can say that the superposition wave function collapses at the moment of system replacement.

However, it is a language shortcut, a story only.

A story is not reality.

A story is post hoc.

physical definition

~ define unobservable events in terms of observable events

Any story would be fine as long as it is compatible with reality, aka measurement results.

But some stories are better than others.

Here, only the longcut version can avoid common meaningless questions.

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Experiment C:

What if during Experiment A, the observer changes his mind to turn on the detector before the particle’s arrival?

We should regard this whole process as an experiment-setup.

The probability patterns encoded in the quantum state is of this experiment-setup, which in this case is equivalent to Experiment B. With respect to this experiment-process/experiment-setup, the variable-to-be-measured is always in a mixed state.

The word “always” here means that a quantum state is not a physical state of a particle in physical spacetime during the experiment. Instead, it is a property (of a physical variable) of the experiment-setup (physical system) itself.

“Physical system” means the experimental-setup design, which includes not just objects and devices, but also operations.

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However, for an experiment like Experiment C, doesn't the violation of Bell's inequality have proved that the spin of the particle is still in a superposition before the activation of the detector?

Let’s translate this question to a double-slit experiment version.

— Me@2022-03-08 11:56:00 PM

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2022.03.09 Wednesday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK