Counting states in heterotic SO(32) string theory | A First Course in String Theory

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At any mass level of the heterotic string, the spacetime bosons are obtained by “tensoring” all the left states (NS’+ and R’+) with with the right-moving NS+ states with .

Similarly, the spacetime fermions are obtained by tensoring all the left states (NS’+ and R’+) with with the right-moving R- states with .

c) Are there tachyonic states in heterotic string theory?

Write out the massless states of the theory (bosons and fermions) …

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Open String:

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Closed String:

— A First Course in String Theory

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We have the following well-known bosonic string mass formulae :

open string:

closed string:

p.55

— Solutions to K. Becker, M. Becker, J. Schwarz *String Theory And M-theory*

— Mikhail Goykhman

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What is the meaning of ?

How come ?

— Me@2018-12-07 10:43:10 PM

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2018.12.07 Friday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK