Counting states in heterotic SO(32) string theory | A First Course in String Theory

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c) Are there tachyonic states in heterotic string theory?

Write out the massless states of the theory (bosons and fermions) …

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We have the following well-known bosonic string mass formulae:

open string:

closed string:

p.55

— Solutions to K. Becker, M. Becker, J. Schwarz *String Theory And M-theory*

— Mikhail Goykhman

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**How come there is an extra at the beginning of the closed string formula?**

p.322

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— Me@2018-12-15 08:59:18 PM

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2018.12.15 Saturday (c) All rights reserved by ACHK