A First Course in String Theory | Topology, 2 | Manifold, 2

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13.6 Orientifold Op-planes

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In the mathematical disciplines of topology, geometry, and geometric group theory, an **orbifold** (for “orbit-manifold”) is a generalization of a manifold. It is a topological space (called the *underlying space*) with an orbifold structure.

The underlying space locally looks like the quotient space of a Euclidean space under the linear action of a finite group.

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In string theory, the word “orbifold” has a slightly new meaning. For mathematicians, an orbifold is a generalization of the notion of manifold that allows the presence of the points whose neighborhood is diffeomorphic to a quotient of by a finite group, i.e. . In physics, the notion of an orbifold usually describes an object that can be globally written as an orbit space where is a manifold (or a theory), and is a group of its isometries (or symmetries) — not necessarily all of them. In string theory, these symmetries do not have to have a geometric interpretation.

— Wikipedia on *Orbifold*

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In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, each point of an -dimensional manifold has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to the Euclidean space of dimension .

— Wikipedia on *Manifold*

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In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods. The definition of a topological space relies only upon set theory and is the most general notion of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of concepts such as continuity, connectedness, and convergence. Other spaces, such as manifolds and metric spaces, are specializations of topological spaces with extra structures or constraints.

— Wikipedia on *Topological space*

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2019.09.26 Thursday ACHK