# The 4 bugs of quantum mechanics popular, 1.3

The common quantum mechanics “paradoxes” are induced by 4 main misunderstandings.

1.  `A wave function is of a particle.` Wrong.

2.1  `A system's wave function exists in physical spacetime.` Wrong.

physical definition

~ define the microscopic events in terms of observable physical phenomena such as the change of readings of the measuring device

~ `define` unobservable events in terms of observable events

— Me@2022-01-31 08:33:01 AM

superposition

~ lack of the existence of measuring device to provide the `physical definitions` for the (difference between) microscopic events

— Me@2022-02-12 10:22:09 AM

a physical variable X is in a superposition state

~ X has no `physical definition`

~ in the experiment-setup design, no measurement device is allowed to exist to provide a definition of different possible values of X

— Me@2022-02-18 02:04:45 PM

2.2   `A superposition state is a physical superposition of a physical state.` Wrong.

“Quantum state” is a misnomer. It is not a (physical) state. It is a (mathematical) property. It is a system property (of a physical variable) of an experimental-setup design.

“State” and “property” have identical meanings except that:

`State is physical. It exists in physical time. In other words, a system's state changes with time.`

``` ```

`Property is mathematical. It is timeless. In other words, a system's property does not change. (If you insist on changing a system's property, that system will become, actually, another system.)`

For example, “having two wheels” is a bicycle’s property; but the speed is a state, not a property of that bicycle.

superposition state

~ physically-undefined property

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In the phrase “superposition state”, the word “superposition” is also a misnomer.

A superposition state is not of physical waves, nor of physical states. Instead, it is a superposition of physical meanings of some variables in a physical system.

a physical variable X is in a superposition state

~ X is a physically-undefined property (of the physical system)

— Me@2022-02-18 02:04:45 PM

— Me@2022-02-20 06:44:32 AM

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