Ex 1.21 The dumbbell, 3.3

Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics

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c. Make a change of coordinates to a coordinate system with center of mass coordinates \displaystyle{x_{cm}}, \displaystyle{y_{cm}}, angle \displaystyle{\theta}, distance between the particles \displaystyle{c}, and tension force \displaystyle{F}. Write the Lagrangian in these coordinates, and write the Lagrange equations.

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[guess]


(define (KE-particle m v)
  (* 1/2 m (square v)))

(define ((L-free-constrained m0 m1 l) local)
  (let* ((extract (extract-particle 2))
     (p0 (extract local 0))
     (q0 (coordinate p0))
     (qdot0 (velocity p0))
  
     (p1 (extract local 1))
     (q1 (coordinate p1))
     (qdot1 (velocity p1))
  
     (F (ref (coordinate local) 4)))
 
    (- (+ (KE-particle m0 qdot0)
          (KE-particle m1 qdot1))
       (U-constraint q0 q1 F l))))

(define ((extract-particle pieces) local i)
  (let* ((indices (apply up (iota pieces (* i pieces))))
         (extract (lambda (tuple)
                    (vector-map (lambda (i)
                                  (ref tuple i))
                                indices))))
    (up (time local)
        (extract (coordinate local))
        (extract (velocity local)))))

(define (U-constraint q0 q1 F l)
  (* (/ F (* 2 l))
     (- (square (- q1 q0))
        (square l))))

(let ((L (L-free-constrained 'm_0 'm_1 'l))
      (q-rect (up (literal-function 'x_0)
                  (literal-function 'y_0)
                  (literal-function 'x_1)
                  (literal-function 'y_1)
                  (literal-function 'F))))
  (show-expression
   ((compose L (Gamma q-rect)) 't)))

\displaystyle{ \frac{1}{2} m_0 \left( \dot x_0^2 + \dot y_0^2 \right) + \frac{1}{2} m_1 \left( \dot x_1^2 + \dot y_1^2 \right) + \frac{F}{2 l} \left( l^2 - y_1^2 + 2 y_0 y_1 - x_1^2 + 2 x_0 x_1 - y_0^2 - x_0^2 \right) }

\displaystyle{ = \frac{1}{2} m_0 \left( \dot x_0^2 + \dot y_0^2 \right) + \frac{1}{2} m_1 \left( \dot x_1^2 + \dot y_1^2 \right) - \frac{F}{2 l} \left[ (y_1 - y_0)^2 + (x_1 - x_0)^2 - l^2 \right] }


(define ((q->r m0 m1) local)
  (let ((q (coordinate local)))
    (let ((x_cm (ref q 0))
          (y_cm (ref q 1))
          (theta (ref q 2)) 
          (c (ref q 3))
	      (F (ref q 4))
	      (M (+ m0 m1)))
      (let ((x0 (- x_cm (* (/ m1 M) c (cos theta))))
            (y0 (- y_cm (* (/ m1 M) c (sin theta))))
            (x1 (+ x_cm (* (/ m0 M) c (cos theta))))
            (y1 (+ y_cm (* (/ m0 M) c (sin theta)))))
        (up x0 y0 x1 y1 F)))))

(let ((q (up (literal-function 'x_cm)
	         (literal-function 'y_cm)
	         (literal-function 'theta)
	         (literal-function 'c)
	         (literal-function 'F))))
  (show-expression (q 't)))

 
(show-expression
 (up 't
     (up 'x_cm 'y_cm 'theta 'c 'F)
     (up 'xdot_cm 'ydot_cm 'thetadot 'cdot 'Fdot)))


(show-expression
  ((q->r 'm_0 'm_1) 
     (up 't
         (up 'x_cm 'y_cm 'theta 'c 'F)
         (up 'xdot_cm 'ydot_cm 'thetadot 'cdot 'Fdot))))


(let ((q (up (literal-function 'x_cm)
             (literal-function 'y_cm)
             (literal-function 'theta)
             (literal-function 'c)
             (literal-function 'F))))
  (show-expression ((q->r 'm_0 'm_1) ((Gamma q) 't))))


(show-expression
  ((F->C (q->r 'm_0 'm_1)) 
     (up 't
         (up 'x_cm 'y_cm 'theta 'c 'F)
         (up 'xdot_cm 'ydot_cm 'thetadot 'cdot 'Fdot))))

(define (L-cm m0 m1 l)
  (compose
   (L-free-constrained m0 m1 l) (F->C (q->r m0 m1))))

(show-expression
 ((L-cm 'm_0 'm_1 'l)
     (up 't
         (up 'x_cm 'y_cm 'theta 'c 'F)
         (up 'xdot_cm 'ydot_cm 'thetadot 'cdot 'Fdot))))

\displaystyle{    \frac{1}{\mu} = \frac{1}{m_0} + \frac{1}{m_1}    }

\displaystyle{    L_{cm}     }

\displaystyle{  = \frac{    ( c^2 \dot \theta^2 + \dot c^2 ) l m_0 m_1                   + (l m_0^2 + 2 l m_0 m_1 + l m_1^2) (\dot x_{cm}^2 + \dot y_{cm}^2)  + F ( l^2 - c^2 )(m_0 + m_1)  }{2 l (m_0 + m_1)}    }

\displaystyle{  = \frac{    ( c^2 \dot \theta^2 + \dot c^2 ) l m_0 m_1                   + l (m_0 + m_1)^2 (\dot x_{cm}^2 + \dot y_{cm}^2)  + F ( l^2 - c^2 )(m_0 + m_1)  }{2 l (m_0 + m_1)}    }

\displaystyle{  =   \frac{1}{2} ( c^2 \dot \theta^2 + \dot c^2 ) \mu                   +  \frac{1}{2} (m_0 + m_1) (\dot x_{cm}^2 + \dot y_{cm}^2)  +  \frac{1}{2l} F ( l^2 - c^2 )   }


(show-expression
 (((Lagrange-equations
    (L-cm 'm_0 'm_1 'l))
   (up (literal-function 'x_cm)
       (literal-function 'y_cm)
       (literal-function 'theta)
       (literal-function 'c)
       (literal-function 'F)))
  't))


(show-expression
 (((Lagrange-equations
    (L-cm 'm_0 'm_1 'l))
   (up (literal-function 'x_cm)
       (literal-function 'y_cm)
       (literal-function 'theta)
       (lambda (t) 'l)
       (literal-function 'F)))
  't))

[guess]

— Me@2021-09-17 06:35:51 AM

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